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Proceedings of the International Conference on "Mathematics for Living"
Jordan, November 18-23, 2000


Sponsored By


The Mathematics Education into the 21st Century Project
 The Third World Forum

Consortium of Jordanian Public Universities
The National Center for Human Resource Development -Jordan

Ministry of Education - Jordan

The Hong Kong Institute of Education

International Program Committee

Chairman  Dr. Alan Rogerson, International Coordinator of the Mathematics in Society Project (Australia).

Dr Khaled Abuloum, Math Education, University of Jordan (Jordan).

Dr Farouq A. Almeqdadi, Math Education, Yarmouk University (Jordan).

Professor Roberto Baldino, UNESP (Brazil).

Dr. Andy Begg , Senior Lecturer in Mathematics Education, University of Waikato (New Zealand).

Dr. Donna F. Berlin, Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education, The Ohio State University (USA)

Prof. Dr. Werner Blum, University of Kassel (Germany).

Professor Ubiratan D'Ambrosio, Emeritus Professor of Mathematics, State University of Campinas/UNICAMP, (Brazil).

Professor Bruno D'Amore, University of Bolgna (Italy).

Prof Dr William Ebeid, Emeritus Professor, Dept. of Curriculum and Instruction, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University (Egypt).

Professor Paul Ernest, Professor of the Philosophy of Mathematics Education, University of Exeter (UK).

Dr Hanan Innabi, Researcher, National Centre for Human Resouces Development (Jordan).

Prof. Dr. Gabriele Kaiser, Hamburg University (Germany).

Prof Dr Fayez Mina, Dept. of Curriculum & Instruction, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University (Egypt).

Rob Money, Former President of MAV &Local Organiser for Australia 2001 Conference (Australia).

Prof Dr M. Ali M. Nassar, Director of Planning Center, Institute of National Planning (Egypt).

Professor Lionel Pereira Mendoza, Associate Professor, Division of Mathematics, National Institute of Education (Singapore).

Prof. Medhat Rahim, Lakehead University, Faculty of Education (Canada).

Professor Dr. Alicia Villar Icasuriaga, Instituto de  Profesores  "Artigas" (IPA), Montevideo, (Uruguay)

Dr. Arthur L. White, Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education, The Ohio State University ( USA)

Professor. Wacek Zawadowski, Warsaw University (Poland).



National Organizing Committee

Chairman Prof. Farid K. Abu Zeinah, Prof, of Math Education, Hashemite University.

Prof. Ghazi Hamzeh, Prof of Math Education, Head of Mathematics Department, Al-albat University.

Dr Abdallah Ababneh, Math Education, Dean of Faculty of Educational Sciences, Al-Husan University.

Dr Khaled Abuloum, Math Education, University of Jordan.

Dr Farouq A. Almeqdadi, Math Education, Yarmouk University.

Dr Zeid Al-Bashaireh, Science Education, Mu'tah University.

Ms Nadia J. Sweis, Economic and Math, Al-balqa Applied University.

Mr. Ahmad Ghassab Alhawamdeh, General Manager of Irbid Directorate, Ministry of Education.

Dr Khattab M. Abu Libdeh, Researcher, National Center for Human Resources Development.



This volume contains papers presented at the International Conference on Mathematics Education into the 21st Century: Mathematics for Living held in Amman, Jordan from November 18-23, 2000. The Conference arose out of the work of the Mathematics Education into the 21st Century Project - a non-commercial international educational initiative founded in 1986. The Project is dedicated to the improvement of mathematics education worldwide through the publication and dissemination of innovative ideas. For further information on the history and ongoing work of the Project please refer to


The Mathematics Education into the 21st Century Project has been fortunate in obtaining in Jordan the local support and cooperation of the Ministry of Education, The National Center for Human Resource Development and a Consortium of Jordanian Public Universities. In addition the Conference has been supported internationally by The Third World Forum, The Hong Kong Institute of Education and The Australian Association of Mathematics Teachers. The Conference is also grateful for the financial support and sponsorship of Texas Instruments, QED, Greygum and Function.


It has been my pleasure to read all of these contributions and to edit them for the Proceedings. The overall purpose of the editing was, as far as possible, to retain the individual styles, in line with our minimal instructions for the preparation of papers. These Proceedings contain in order: Plenary Papers, Other papers in alphabetical order of the Presenter(s) in Jordan (indicated in bold), English Abstracts of papers in Arabic, Abstracts of the Workshop Presentations. Please note that some diagrams and illustrations have had to be converted to black and white for these Proceedings but were clearer in their original full colour.


I sincerely thank all of the contributors for their time and effort. Thanks are especially due also to our Jordanians colleagues in the National Organising Committee for their patience, hard work and unfailing support, without which the Conference, and these Proceedings, would not have been possible.


It should be clear from the variety and quality of the papers in these Proceedings that the conference has attracted many innovative mathematics educators from around the world. I feel sure that these Proceedings will be a useful step in reviewing past work and looking ahead to the future. So much so that they will serve as a foundation for a new exciting International Initiative to be launched during the Jordan Conference: The Super Course of the Future!

Dr. Alan Rogerson

Chaiman of the Programme Committee


Problems of Representing Concepts in the Learning of Mathematics (english version)

Bruno D’Amore (Italy)  

Problems of Representing Concepts in the Learning of Mathematics (italian version)

Bruno D’Amore (Italy)  

Reaching Gender Equity in Mathematics Education(1)

Gila Hanna (Canada)


Reaching Gender Equity in Mathematics Education(2)

Sharleen D Forbes (New Zealand)


Theorizing for Non-theoretical Approaches to Mathematics Education

Fayez M. Mina (Egypt)


Empowerment of Students – How can we succeed?

Lionel Pereira Mendoza (Singapore)


Designing the mathematics curriculum in Malaysia: Making mathematics more meaningful.

Noor Azlan Ahmad Zanzali (Malaysia)


Evaluating the levels of problem solving abilities in mathematics

Noor Azlan Ahmad Zanzali & Lui Lai Nam (Malaysia))


Using conceptual maps and semi-structured interviews in teaching mathematics.

M. Trombetta, E. Azzali, M. Bassi, S. Beltrame. D. Bitto, M. Calvani, G. Catanese,

A. Margari, S. Sclippa, S. Stella, G. Trifiletti, I. Visintin (Italy)


Coloring Dynamical Systems in the Complex Plane

Francisco Garcia, Angel Fernandez, Javier Barrallo & Luis Martin (Spain)


Learning Heritage Restoration, Learning Mathematics

Santiago Sanchez-Beitia & Javier Barrallo (Spain)


An Innovative Integrated Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education Teacher Certification Program: Characteristics and Formative Evaluation

Donna F. Berlin & Arthur L. White (USA)


About Students’ Understanding and Learning the Concept of Surface Area

Cinzia Bonotto (Italy)


Real Data and Statistics in the Mathematics Education. What is coming out of a Research on Teaching Strategies for the Learning of Statistics

L. Brunelli (Italy) & L. Gattuso (Canada)


Reflections on an Academic Support Program

Vivien Budge (South Africa)


Mathematics as Seen by Pupils and Teachers: A Way Forward

Indira Chacko (Zimbabwe)


Connecting Mathematics Problem Solving to the Real World

Erik De Corte, Lieven Verschaffel (Belgium)& Brian Greer (USA)


Videos as a Learning Support to Improve Mathematics Education. I. Advantages and Methodology

Soledad ESTEBAN, María P. GONZÁLEZ & Luis TEJERO (Spain)


Videos as a Learning Support to Improve Mathematics Education. II. A Practical Example

Soledad ESTEBAN, María P. GONZÁLEZ, Carlos ROMERA & Luis TEJERO (Spain)


Volume Measurement and Conservation in Late primary School Children in Cyprus

Stamatis Voulgaris & Anastasia Evangelidou (Cyprus)


Mathematical Modeling, Technology, and the Environment

Beverly J. Ferrucci & Jack A. Carter (USA)


Mathematics at Distance Education University for Students with Visual Sensorial Discapacity

Leví Genoveva, E. Ramos, E. Del Campo, P. Rejas (Spain)


A Research Into Children’s Understanding Of Multiple Representation Strand Of Number Sense In Penang, Malaysia.

Munirah Ghazali & Noor Azlan Ahmad Zanzali (Malaysia)


Assessment of applied numeracy skills among post 16 students and trainees.

John Gillespie (UK)


Spinning Threads between Students, Teachers, Life and Mathematics Coarse or Silken Threads?

Pamela Hagen (Canada)


The representation of mathematical concepts in primary mathematics textbooks: a focus on multiplication

Tony Harries & Rosamund Sutherland (UK)


The Role of the Mathematics Coordinator in School-based Curriculum Development

Irene Hazou-Makhoul (Palestine)


Advantages and disadvantages of using ‘real world’ problems in teaching mathematics.

Agata Hoffmann (Poland)


Geometric Thought Within School Mathematics Textbooks in Jordan

Amal Khasawneh (Jordan)


The Structure of Triads and Pilot Experiments

Jana Kratochvílová (Czech Republic)


Theory and Application of Majority Vote - From Condorcet Jury Theorem to Pattern Recognition

Louisa Lam (Hong Kong)


Through the bars. Learning and Teaching Mathematics in Jail

Aldo Frezzotti, Federico G. Lastaria & Stefano Mortola (Italy)


Living in the Real-World-System: technology and mathematics as Systemic Thinking Mediators

Enrica Lemut (Italy)


Comparison of Numbers

N. Mahir, N. Çetin, S. Canbek (Turkey)


Computer facilitation in understanding of some notions in ordinary differential equations

Magdalena Makowiak & Adam Marlewski (Poland)


Innovative paths for approaching rational numbers from the structural point of view

Nicolina A. Malara (Italy)


From Mathematics for Living to Living for Mathematics

George Malaty (Finland)


A Consistency Qualitative Analysis of Complex Real-Life Models

Meznik I, & Dohnal M. (Czech Republic)


Data Interpretation in the 21st Century: Issues in the Classroom

James Nicholson & Gerry Mulhern (UK)


CLIL and Mathematics Education

Jarmila Novotná & Marie Hofmannová (Czech Republic)


Quality Function Deployment applied to the design of Educational Intranet

Beatriz Ontiveros & Ismael Soto (Chile), M.Luisa Wolomberg, Liliana M Martinez, Genoveva Bouyssi  & Liliana Rios (Argentina)


The Effects of General Mathematics in High School on College Calculus at Anadolu University in Turkey

Nevin Orhun (Turkey)


Promoting mathematical investigation in class: reflections on the rôle of the teacher on the basis of experiences conducted in the secondary school

Angela Pesci (Italy)


A Classroom Use of the Geometer’s Sketchpad in a Mathematics Pre-Service Teacher Education program

Medhat H. Rahim (Canada)


The Modelling  of the Large Investment Projects – Problems, Limits and Solutions.

Karel Rais (Czech Republic)


Graphic representations and algebraic expressions: an example of software mediation

Maria Reggiani (Italy)


Statistics and Measuring: an experimental educational research in Italian High Schools 

Silio Rigatti Luchini, Maria Pia Perelli & Giorgio Tomaso Bagni (Italy)


Multimedia Technologies: A New Way to Analyse the Connections between the Mathematics, Architecture, and Arts

Nicoletta Sala (Switzerland)


Fractal Models in Architecture: A Case of Study

Nicoletta Sala (Switzerland)


Alive Maths: Living Mathematics on the Web

Nathalie Sinclair (Canada)


The role of History of Mathematics in research in Mathematics Education

Filippo Spagnolo (Italy)


The "0", is it an obstacle?

Di Leonardo M.V., Marino T., Spagnolo F. (Italy)


Using error correction exercises with primary children

Mike Spooner (UK)


A Non-Standard Arithmetic Structure as an Environment for Students’ Problem Solving and an Introduction into Structural Thinking

Nadia Stehlíková (Czech Republic)


The problem of integration the formal knowledge of the pupil with the non-formal one (showed on the example of the similar figures)

Ewa Swoboda (Poland)


A Study about the Influence of Cultural Beliefs on Probabilistic Thinking amongst pupils aged from ten to fourteen

M. J. Cañizares and A. Vallecillos (Spain)


English Abstracts of papers in Arabic


Abstracts of the Workshop Presentations.


Groupe 3

Groupe 5